Module 2: Challenges for Mainstreaming Gender in Transport
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2.1. Time Poverty

  • Women's and girls' labor time and flexibility are much more constrained than men's and boys' due to the need to balance multiple roles simultaneously. This places competing claims on limited time and results in "time poverty".
  • Social and cultural norms define women's and girls' economic roles largely in the non-market, labor intensive work of subsistence agriculture, processing food, gathering water and fire wood, and caring for the young, elderly and sick.
Source: Gender, Time Use and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank 2005:15

Determinants of Time Allocation

  • Economic Factors: Wage income, non-wage income, existence of labor, good markets, etc.
  • Non-economic factors: Social and cultural norms, gender division of labor.

Time Burden Examples from Africa

A 1994 study in Zambia showed that women bear the greatest burden of transport tasks.

Source: M. Blackden based on Women in Rural Transport. Christina Malmberg Calvo. SSATP Working Paper 11. 1994.
Women and girls work significantly longer hours than men and boys in Benin and many other countries
Source: Blackden based on Benin Time Allocation Study. UNDP. 1998.
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