Module 1: Why Gender and Transport?
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1.3. Multi-Sectoral Issues

There are many important linkages between transport and other sectors. Transport infrastructure and services provide access to basic services such as health clinics, schools, markets, administrative offices as well as agricultural extension, pension distribution points, banking and postal facilities.

Access to Health

While the sector provides important physical access to health clinics and hospitals through the provision of infrastructure and services, it also has an important impact as a major vector for the spread of HIV/AIDS.

Transport and HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS Resources
Transport and HIV/AIDS: Transport Sector Joins the Fight. IFRTD Forum, April 2004.

Women, Girls, HIV/AIDS and the World of Work. ILO AIDS Brief, December 2004.

AIDS and Transport in Africa: A Framework for Meeting the Challenge. World Bank, AFTTR, 2003.
  • Transport workers spend weeks and months away from their families and many engage in risky sex behavior "on the road". When they return to their homes, they can infect their wives and partners.
  • Long haul truck drivers are the highest risk transport worker group.
  • Gender norms shape attitudes towards sexuality, risk-taking, fidelity, sharing information about sex, and power relations between men and women. Thus, gender norms play a significant role in HIV/AIDS transmission.
  • World Bank research has shown that the more unequal the relation between men and women in a country, the higher its HIV prevalence rate.*
* Source: World Bank 2004            Integrating Gender into HIV/AIDS Programs 
Implications of AIDS for Transport

The HIV/AIDS epidemic has spread with ferocious speed. Virtually unknown 20 years ago, AIDS is now the leading cause of death in Africa. In several nations, life expectancy has dropped by over 10 years. By striking people young in their adulthood, HIV/AIDS limits the pool of potential recruits and stops short the returns in skilled labor the sector needs to be productive. Although the number of studies on HIV prevalence may be few, the evidence is clear; HIV prevalence is high among several cadres of transport personnel. On the Dar-es-Salaam highway in 1996, HIV prevalence was found to be 28 percent for truckers and 56 percent for their female partners.

Source: AIDS and Transport in Africa -- A Framework for Meeting the Challenge. World Bank, AFTTR, July 2003.

HIV/AIDS Prevention and Treatment

Transport policies, strategies, and communication campaigns need to address HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. Today, every World Bank transport project in Africa uses HIV/AIDS clauses in the bidding documents to ensure that access to information and prevention is given to workers. In addition, several ministries have created HIV/AIDS policies and strategies for further outreach and created effective partnerships with NGOs working on HIV/AIDS issues.

Maternal Mortality

Every minute, around the world*:
  • 110 women experience pregnancy-related complications
  • 1 woman dies in child birth
Many of these deaths could be prevented by timely access to transport and reduction of time and distance to health services
*Source: White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood Website

Source: Millennium Development Goals Report. United Nations, 2005. pg. 22.

How can the transport sector help to reduce maternal mortality?
  • Access to means of transport and passable roads can save the lives of women in child birth and the lives of newborns.
  • Women need to have access to emergency transport which is affordable and available.
  • Reliable health services need to be located closer to rural and urban communities.

Access to Education

Without access to transport, labor consuming domestic tasks leave little or no time for girls', youth's and women's education and skills training.

Intermediate means of transport (IMT) non-motorized transport (NMT), such as traction animals, and non-transport low cost technology reduce women's and girls' burden for collection of water and wood, leaving them time for school. In addition, bicycles can enable girls to attend school and reach school with less risk of gender based violence.

Gender and Transport Dimensions of the MDGs

Transport sector policies are increasingly focused on poverty reduction, reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as well as economic growth. Poverty reduction and compensation strategies must be gender-sensitive to ensure that they benefit the poor, particularly women.
Gender mainstreaming in the transport sector is essential to achieve the MDGs

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The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
MDG 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger: Gender and Transport Dimensions
MDG 2: Universal Primary Education: Gender and Transport Dimensions
MDG 3: Gender Equality: Transport Dimensions
MDG 4: Child Health
MDG 5: Maternal Mortality: Transport Dimensions
MDG 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
MDG 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
MDG 8: Develop a global partnership for development

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