GENDER AND TRANSPORT RESOURCE GUIDE
Module 1: Why Gender and Transport?
1.2. Transport PlanningRoad, railroad, port and inland waterway planning, design, and construction take into account the terrain and potential for promoting national economic growth. The specific needs and potential displacement of local people living along the transport routes tend to be addressed after initial feasibility analysis has been carried out. Planning and design for roads can overlook the possible negative impacts of transport infrastructure and services on the safety and activities of local people, especially among women, girls, youth and the elderly. Badly conceptualized transport planning can harm people, particularly the poor. Road safety issues and statistics illustrate the disproportionate negative impacts of transport planning that leaves out people, particularly poor people.
Most public transportation - both urban and rural - is routed and scheduled to serve commuting trips to work, largely those of men, not women's multiple roles as mothers, producers and entrepreneurs that require off peak travel to multiple destinations. Studies have documented the negative economic, education and health impacts of public transport planning that failed to take women's travel needs into account. For example, in South Africa, many women work as housekeeprs and shift workers who need to travel to many locations at different times, usually at off-peak hours when limited bus services are provided. They also face harassment on the buses or while waiting at bus stops..
Feeder Roads, Tracks, Paths, and Foot Bridges
Transport planning usually focuses on national highways and other major
road networks rather than the feeder
roads, tracks, paths and foot bridges that are the main travel routes
for women, girls and boys going to fields, markets, school, and health
centers. It is important to recognize that upgrading these extended
transport networks for foot, draft animal, bike, and motorbike travel
is essential to increasing the efficiency of rural access, particularly
for women, girls and boys.
Intermediate Means of Transport (IMT)
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Intermediate means of transport (IMT) such as bicycles and carts provide an effective, relatively low cost approach to increasing productivity, income and the volume of goods that women and youth, as well as men, can transport to market to sell. But all too often only men have access to IMTs. Effective transport planning incorporates strategies to ensure that women as well as men benefit from projects introducing IMTs.
Waterways and Ports
Programs to develop waterways and ports rarely take into account women’s transport needs or the roles that women and youth can and do play as boat owners and operators, traders on boats, or as contractors, laborers and employees in ports and water transport. Construction of rural inland waterway transport --used by poor women and men to provide transport services for trade, and fishing for sale --has recieved little attention from transport planners. Tax exemptions provided for road transport are rarely given for rural water transport. In addition, construction of roads and bridges can negatively impact rural water transport systems.
planning with local people that includes the voices of women, youth
and children is important because their needs are different. Women's
community activities can help increase the sustainability of infrastructure
development, maintenance and services.In addition, involvement of women
in transport planning can generate opportunities for women as well as
men to participate in and plan implementation activities such as road
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